More Information on
Circadian Sleep Disorders
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- the more people we have, the more impact we have when we try to raise awareness of
circadian disorders with other organizations, the press, the medical community, and the public.
We need members!
Together we have a voice!
We created a simple brochure to introduce DSPS and Non-24 to
people experiencing symptoms of these disorders, and to their families.
We encourage distributing this to anyone who may be interested. Print on lightly colored paper for a brighter look!
web display version shows the brochure panels in easy-to-read order. The print versions are meant to be printed out on both sides of a sheet of paper, then folded in thirds, creating a brochure. (In the print version, the panels will appear out of order on-screen.)
We have posted documents describing DSPS and Non-24, in an easy to read Question-and-Answer format.
These are designed to give to family members, friends, employers, and school personnel, to help them
understand these disorders. Feel free to print and distribute these. There are two different (but similar) versions, one for DSPS and the other for Non-24:
formats display nicely in your browser.
The web versions are formatted by your browser for printing a multi-page document.
The printer forms are pre-formatted PDF files that you can print on two sides of a single sheet of paper, which then folds in half into a booklet.
booklet * When printing the booklet, be sure to (select this option if you have a double-sided printer).
flip on the short edge
We've put together a short
as a quick way of introducing circadian sleep disorders to people who don't know about them. It's one side of one sheet of paper, so it's easy to print out. It's shorter and less dense than our brochure or our Q&A booklets, so it's a quick and easy read, just the basics.
Niteowl Email List
This is a mailing list support group for people with DSPS and Non-24 to share
their experiences. It's a good place for people just discovering these disorders
to hear how others deal with them, as well as for long-time participants to get support and to provide support to others.
There are often discussions of evolving treatment, useful to all.
For further information, and to sign up,
Links to Other Pages and Other Sites
Circadian Sleep Disorders Network does not necessarily agree with the content on other sites that we link to.
Some links have been moved to other pages, where they seem to belong.
For example, treatment related links are on the
If you don't see something here, please look further, or use the Search box above.
Circadian Sleep Disorders (including both DSPS and Non-24)
delayed2sleep et al, DSPS, A Sleep Disorder - a blog about DSPS and N24
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder - Wikipedia entry
A wiki on circadian rhythm disorders - Note: this site contains a
list of patient-recommended physicians who are familiar with CRSDs.
We have no input into this list (it was generated by users of the wiki), and cannot vouch for it, but it may be useful to people looking for a sleep doctor. Curtis, L,
A Minute to Midnight, (2004) - A parent's description of her son's DSPS/Non-24 Curtis, L,
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome and Non-24-Hour Circadian Rhythm Disorder, (2004) - an excellent description a mother sent to her son's school
Circadian rhythm sleep disorder - in ScienceDaily Lockley, Stephen,
Sleep Research in the Blind May Help Us All , (2012) Griffith-Haynie, Madelyn,
JetLagged for Life, (2012) - excellent description by someone suffering from DSPS/N24 (and apparently sometimes one or the other), and ADD as well Research Papers
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD), (2002) - An excellent review article. Dagan, Y and Abadi, J,
Sleep Wake Schedule Disorder Disability: A Life-Long Untreatable Pathology of the Circadian Time Structure, (2001) - A wonderfully supportive article. Dagan, Y and Borodkin, K,
Behavioral and psychiatric consequences of sleep-wake schedule disorders, (2005) Drake, CL,
The characterization and pathology of circadian rhythm sleep disorders, (2010) Sack, RL et al,
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part II, Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder, Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder, Free-Running Disorder, and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm, (2007) - AASM Review article on Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders, diagnosis and treatment Sack, RL et al,
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part I, Basic Principles, Shift Work and Jet Lag Disorders, (2007) - AASM Review article on Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders, background Dodson, ER and Zee, PC,
Therapeutics for Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders, (2010) Research Papers - Adverse Effects
Wright KP Jr, et al,
Sleep and wakefulness out of phase with internal biological time impairs learning in humans, (2006) Scheer, FAJL et al,
Adverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of circadian misalignment, (2009) Buxton, OM et al,
Adverse Metabolic Consequences in Humans of Prolonged Sleep Restriction Combined with Circadian Disruption, (2012) - Obesity and Diabetes. Summa, KC, Vitaterna, MH, and Turek, FW,
Environmental Perturbation of the Circadian Clock Disrupts Pregnancy in the Mouse, (2012) Gibson, EM et al,
Experimental 'Jet Lag' Inhibits Adult Neurogenesis and Produces Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Female Hamsters, (2010) Classification of CSDs
Also see additional articles above under
DSPS - Delayed Sleep-Phase Syndrome - with additional links
Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder - Wikipedia entry
Niteowl: DSPS - Delayed Sleep-Phase Syndrome - Facebook DSPS Group Ancowitz, Nancy,
How Your Bedtime Is Affecting Your Job Performance, (2012) - first of a series of articles about DSPS, including an interview with our (CSD-N) president Ancowitz, Nancy,
Change Your Career, Not Your Sleep Habits, (2013) - second of the series Ancowitz, Nancy,
Should Some Employees Be Allowed to Start Work Late?, (2013) - third of the series DSPS owl,
A Little Bit Special: DSPS, a sleep disorder, (2007) - on Daily Kos Hedrick, Bill,
THE Unknown Sleep Disorder, (2011) - in Kilgore News Herald
Delayed Sleep-Phase Syndrome, (2009) - in Sleep and Health Journal
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome - in Sleep Disorders Guide
Medlink Neurology: Delayed sleep phase syndrome - An excellent summary - click on ClinicalSummaries/Alphabetical/D/Delayed....
Delayed Sleep-Phase Syndrome - American Sleep Association
I Have Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome - DSPS stories on the Experience Project Gardner, Amanda,
Is 'social jet lag' harming your health?, (2012) - connection with obesity; "Paying more attention to our body clocks may be good for the economy as well as our health" Harris, Shelby Freedman,
Snoozing Till Noon? It Could Be A Sleep Disorder, (2012) Rosenberg, Russell,
Is It Typical Teenage Behavior -- Or A Sleep Disorder?, (2011) Research Papers
Weitzman, ED, Czeisler, CA et al,
Delayed sleep phase syndrome. A chronobiological disorder with sleep-onset insomnia, (1981) - The original paper describing DSPS (abstract) Oren, DA and Wehr, TA,
Hypernyctohemeral Syndrome after Chronotherapy for Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome, (1992) - Chronotherapy for DSPS may lead to Non-24-Hour Disorder Revell, VL, Burgess, HJ, et al,
Advancing Human Circadian Rhythms with Afternoon Melatonin and Morning Intermittent Bright Light, (2006) Uchiyama M, Okawa M, et al,
Poor compensatory function for sleep loss as a pathogenic factor in patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome, (2000) Crowley, SJ, Acebo, C, and Carskadon, MA,
Sleep, circadian rhythms, and delayed phase in adolescence, (2007) - Much of this applies to adults too Schrader H, Bovim G, and Sand T,
The prevalence of delayed and advanced sleep phase syndromes, (1993) - 0.17% based on 10,000 people [Norway] 1999,
Demography of sleep disturbances associated with circadian rhythm disorders in Japan, (Yazaki, M et al) - 0.13% based on 1500 people [Japan] Campbell SS and Murphy PJ,
Delayed sleep phase disorder in temporal isolation, (2007) - a longer circadian period, and altered relationship with temperature (one DSPS subject) Research Papers Focusing on Adolescents or Children
Sleep in Adolescents: The Perfect Storm, (2011) Crowley, SJ, Acebo, C, and Carskadon, MA,
Sleep, circadian rhythms, and delayed phase in adolescence, (2007) Wright KP Jr, et al,
Sleep and wakefulness out of phase with internal biological time impairs learning in humans, (2006) Hazama GI, Inoue Y, Kojima K et al,
The prevalence of probable delayed-sleep-phase syndrome in students from junior high school to university in Tottori, Japan, (2008) - 0.48% Saxvig IW, Pallesen S et al,
Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students, (2012) - 8.4% Technical articles on genetic differences:
Ebisawa, T, Uchiyama, M et al,
Association of structural polymorphisms in the human , (2001) period3 gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome Mishima, K et al,
The 3111T/C Polymorphism of hClock Is Associated with Evening Preference and Delayed Sleep Timing in a Japanese Population Sample, (2005) Lim AS, Chang AM, Shulman JM, et al,
A common polymorphism near PER1 and the timing of human behavioral rhythms, (2012) Ebisawa T, Kajimura N, Uchiyama M et al,
Alleic variants of human melatonin 1a receptor: function and prevalence in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorders, (1999) - non-24 in particular Xu Y, Padiath QS, Shapiro RE et al,
Functional consequences of a CKIdelta mutation causing familial advanced sleep phase syndrome, (2005)
Also see additional articles above under
Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder - Wikipedia entry
Non 24-Hour Sleep-Wake Syndrome Support Group - on Facebook Fadden, James and Sharkey, Katherine,
Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder, (2013) - detailed description on the National Organization of Rare Diseases web site
Medlink Neurology: Circadian rhythm sleep disorder: free-running type - An excellent summary - click on ClinicalSummaries/Alphabetical/C/Circadian....
24SleepWake - mostly in regard to blind people
Lighting the Way for Sleepless Teens, (2007) - successful Treatment of a Teen with Non-24 Lloyd, Janice,
Sleep disorder leaves author in sync only with himself , (2009) - USA Today article on an author, George Dawes Green, with Non-24 Research Papers
Sack, RL et al,
Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders: Part II, Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder, Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder, Free-Running Disorder, and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm, (2007) - AASM Review article on Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders, diagnosis and treatment Uchiyama M et al,
Larger phase angle between sleep propensity and melatonin rhythms in sighted humans with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome, (2002) Hayakawa T et al,
Clinical analyses of sighted patients with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome: a study of 57 consecutively diagnosed cases, (2005) Sack RL, Lewy AJ, et al,
Circadian rhythm abnormalities in totally blind people: incidence and clinical significance, (1992) Uchiyama M, Okawa M, et al,
Delayed phase jumps of sleep onset in a patient with non-24-hour sleep-wake syndrome, (1996) Shibui K, Uchiyama M, et al,
Periodic fatigue symptoms due to desynchronization in a patient with non-24-h sleep-wake syndrome, (1998) Wever RA,
Fractional desynchronization of human circadian rhythms. A method for evaluating entrainment limits and functional interdependencies, (1983)
Treatment of DSPS and Non-24
Treatment of DSPS and Non-24 - our Treatments page including sleep hygeine, light therapy, melatonin, chronotherapy, light restriction, sleep deprivation/phase advance, light boxes, goggles, etc
These stories are in the words of the people submitting them. We do not verify the information they contain,
and do not judge their applicability to others. What works for some may not work for others.
A Path to Successful Light Therapy, (2012) - one member's successful experience
Living with Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome (DSPS), (2012) Peter,
My Story with DSPS, (2012) - a lucky break
My Life with DSPS, (2012) Erika,
The Effects of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome on My Life, (2012) Kiirani,
Kiirani's Story, (2011) Armstrong, Brian,
How I Learned to Live With DSPS, (2009) Craig,
Sleep Disorders - Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome , (2010) - YouTube video Non-24
Having trouble adjusting to the time change? Imagine doing it EVERY DAY., (2004) - a parent's description of her son's DSPS/Non-24 and its treatment Clay,
My experience trying to cure N24, (2012)
Like an Orchestra Out of Tune with No Conductor, (2012) Mark,
Mark's Story With Non-24, (2012) - in the UK Hume, Jonathan,
Living with N24 - some select quotes, (2013)
For Monitoring or Charting Your Sleep at Home
Zeo - tracks your sleep stages (wake, REM, light, deep) with headband sensor
Lark actiwatch - tracks wake and sleep via wrist movement (iPhone/iPad)
SleepTracker - tracks sleep stages via wrist movement Reviewer
note: This watch-type unit claims to track sleep stages using only wrist movement. The accuracy claimed on the website refers only to the accuracy of movement detection, not to the accuracy of determining sleep stages. For all that, the data the manufacturer sent us supports only 87% accuracy of motion detection, not the 95% claimed on the web site. Ok as an inexpensive motion detector (sleep/wake detection), we cannot recommend for analyzing sleep stages.
Sleep Cycle - tracks wake and sleep via wrist movement (iPhone/iPad)
Sleep As Android - tracks wake and sleep via wrist movement (Android devices) Calculating
sleepCal - a calculator for predicting your sleep times in advance if you're Non-24 with a constant delay
Measuring Reaction Time
Accommodation and Disability
Several members have contributed letters which they or their doctors have written in support of accommodation for CSDs.
We include them here in case they can be of use to others.
Names have been changed or removed.
They are provided as guidance, but will generally have to be rewritten to suit your individual circumstances.
You must be a member of Circadian Sleep Disorders Network to access these.
You may join here.
Specific Sleep Disorders
General Sleep Information
Sleep - General
- PubMed search the medical literature (U.S. National Library of Medicine) Lockley, Steven W, and Foster, Russell G,
Sleep: A Very Short Introduction, (2012 book) - an excellent summary Glovinsky, Paul and Spielman, Arthur,
The Insomnia Answer, (2006 book)
Sleep Disorders, (on Medline (U.S. National Library of Medicine))
NIH Curriculum Supplements for High School: Sleep, Sleep Disorders, and Biological Rhythms
The Bedroom: Insomnia Resource Center, (2012) - this page was useful to some, but note: the DSPS link on this page is outdated, do not depend on the info it links to Shahid A, Chung SA, Phillipson R, Shapiro CM,
An approach to long-term sedative-hypnotic use, (2012) - long-term use may not be as bad as has been suggested
Timing is Everything, (2012) - an introduction to circadian rhythms Siegel, LJ,
The Time of Our Lives, (2012) - a discussion of the body clock and its underlying genes Cromie, William J,
Human Biological Clock Set Back an Hour, (1999) - circadian rhythm is 24.2 hours, not 25 hours as previously thought Roenneberg, Till,
Internal Time: Chronotypes, Social Jet Lag, and Why You're So Tired, (2012 book) Popova, Maria,
Internal Time: The Science of Chronotypes, Social Jet Lag, and Why You're So Tired, (2012) - review of above book, good summary Eisenstein, Michael,
Chronobiology: Stepping out of time, (2013) Zimmer, Carl,
Our Strange, Important, Subconscious Light Detectors, (2012) - on the third kind of light receptor, ipRGCs
Photosensitive ganglion cell, (Wikipedia article on ipRGCs) Terman, M and McMahon, I,
Chronotherapy: Resetting Your Inner Clock to Boost Mood, Alertness, and Quality Sleep, (2012) Duffy, JF and Wright, KP Jr,
Entrainment of the Human Circadian System by Light, (2005) Duffy, JF and Czeisler, CA,
Effect of Light on Human Circadian Physiology, (2009) - a fairly recent summary Czeisler CA, Duffy JF, Shanahan TL, et al,
Stability, precision, and near-24-hour period of the human circadian pacemaker, (1999) Cromie, William J,
Human Biological Clock Set Back an Hour, (1999) - 24.2 hours, not 25 as previously thought Duffy JF, Cain SW, Chang AM, et al,
Sex difference in the near-24-hour intrinsic period of the human circadian timing system, (2011) Bessman, Sara and Brown, Ben,
MBW:Modelling Sleep Regulation, (2012) - mathematical model of sleep
- list of new articles on circadian issues in the past week PubCrawler
Special Topics of Interest, by Our Members
Circadian Rhythm and Other Disorders
Marching to a different beat: ADHD and circadian rhythms, (2012) Baird AL et al,
Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with alterations in circadian rhythms at the behavioural, endocrine and molecular levels., (2012) Thakkar, Vatsal G,
Diagnosing the Wrong Deficit, (2013) - many people diagnosed with ADHD are really suffering from lack of good sleep Griffith-Haynie, Madelyn,
Sleep Basics affecting Sleep TIMING, (2013) Autism Glickman, G,
Circadian rhythms and sleep in children with autism, (2010) Hare DJ, Jones S, Evershed K,
A comparative study of circadian rhythm functioning and sleep in people with Asperger syndrome, (2006) Dawson, M,
The circadian prison, (2012) Migraine Claustrat B, Brun J, Chiquet C et al,
Melatonin secretion is supersensitive to light in migraine, (2004) - low levels of light affects melatonin in migraine sufferers, even when headache-free
Effects of Sleep Deprivation
Banks, S and Dinges, DF,
Behavioral and Physiological Consequences of Sleep Restriction, (2007)
Sleeping Too Little May Contribute To Depression, (2011)
Sleep Deprivation Effects: 8 Scary Side Effects Of Too Little Shut-Eye, (2013)
What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency?, (Information provided by NIH)
Short sleep reduces effectiveness of vaccines, (2012) St Onge, MP, et al,
Short Sleep Duration, Glucose Dysregulation and Hormonal Regulation of Appetite in Men and Women, (2012) - shortened sleep leads to overeating Medications
For information about melatonin, please see
Melatonin on our Treatments page.
Lo, HS et al,
Treatment effects of gabapentin for primary insomnia, (2010) Kripke, DF, Langer, RD, and Kline, LE,
Hypnotics' association with mortality or cancer: a matched cohort study, (2012) - associates higher mortality rates with sleeping pills Scharf, Steven,
Sleeping Pills (hypnotics) For Use in Insomnia - What Are The Risks?, (2012) - refutes the above study that associated higher mortality rates with sleeping pills Other
In The News
Should Some Employees Be Allowed to Start Work Late?, (2013) - third article in a series on DSPS Mansbach, Peter,
Presentation to the NIH Sleep Disorders Research Advisory Board, (2013) - and notes from the meeting Ancowitz, Nancy,
Change Your Career, Not Your Sleep Habits, (2013) - second article in a series on DSPS Ancowitz, Nancy,
How Your Bedtime Is Affecting Your Job Performance, (2012) - an odd title for an article about DSPS (first of a series), including an interview with our (CSD-N) president Weber, Lauren,
Go Ahead, Hit the Snooze Button, (2012) - Wall Street Journal on the costs of not enough sleep Mansbach, Peter,
Narcolepsy Network Conference, (2012) - items of interest to CSD people Chan, Amanda L,
Suvorexant: New Kind Of Sleeping Pill Works By Blocking Wakefulness., (2012)
Discovery of Chemical That Affects Biological Clock Offers New Way to Treat Diabetes, (2012) Mansbach, Peter,
Introduction to Circadian Sleep Disorders Network, (2012) - presentation to the NIH Sleep Disorders Research Advisory Board on the difficulties faced by CRSD sufferers Mansbach, Peter,
Introduction to Circadian Sleep Disorders Network, (2013) - video re-enactment of the above talk Czeisler, C et al,
Fighting The Clock: How America's Sleep Deficit is Damaging Longterm Health, (2012) - forum at Harvard (video) Mansbach, Peter,
Narcolepsy Network Conference, (2011) - items of interest to CSD people
Body Clock Receptor Linked to T2 Diabetes in New Genetic Study, (2012) - links between melatonin and diabetes Tarkan, L,
Aging of Eyes Is Blamed for Range of Health Woes, (2012) - including reducing circadian response Avril, Tom,
Jefferson neuroscientist helping astronauts sleep better, (2012) - using different colored lights at different times of day More to come - the list keeps growing!
© 2013 Circadian Sleep Disorders Network
Last modified Jun 18, 2013